The Mediaeval Mind: A History of the Development of Thought

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Nasr and transl. by Latimah-Parvin Peerwani, in Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, pp. 435-37 & 438-56. Explain Epicurus' division of pleasure into two types, and desires into 3 classes, and give his arguments for accepting these divisions. This would be incomprehensible from a Platonic viewpoint, for which “the body is the prison of the soul,” and for which the task of the philosopher is to “learn how to die” so that he might be free from the distracting and corrupting influences of the body.

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Publisher: The Macmillan Co. (1919)


The doctrine of the Incarnation in particular challenges Platonism's negative view of the body and the material world, in contrast with the perfect realm of the mind. x Augustine argued that the search for truth must begin with the acceptance of authority. Historical claims must be accepted or rejected on the basis of authoritative testimony. Christianity involves such historical claims, and Augustine sought to show that it is reasonable to accept the testimony on which Christianity rests. x According to Augustine, because God is good, everything he creates is good; and because God is creator, nothing exists that he does not create , cited: Gregory Pappas: works within the American Pragmatist and Latin American traditions of social and political philosophy. He has written about democracy, the ethical grounds of political theory, social identity, value conflict among cultures, and prejudice. Linda Radzik works within the analytic traditions of social and political philosophy. She has written about the demands of justice in the aftermath of war, atonement for historical injustice, the collective responsibility of social groups, alternative sanctions for criminal wrongdoing, and justice in the family Can we lay waste to an entire countryside? For Grotius, there is a moral mandate of moderation that requires us to temper our actions during war. First, we need to preserve the lives of the innocent whenever possible: Though there may be circumstances, in which absolute justice will not condemn the sacrifice of lives in war, yet humanity will require that the greatest precaution should be used against involving the innocent in danger, except in cases of extreme urgency and utility. [Ibid, 3.11] Grotius is here drawing a fundamental distinction between combatants and noncombatants, which in contemporary just war theory is referred to as the principle of discrimination , cited:

Spiritual and secular the secular only in matters which God has specified, namely matters concerning the salvation of the soul, and in civic matters we should obey person, as they are in the Pope, who by God's arrangement holds the apex of both spiritual and secular powers” With the opening of universities in Western Europe, activity increased. And with the Condemnations of 1210 to 1277, the Church freed philosophers from the requirements of scholastic which had begun to stymie them , cited: When, after the period of Maimonides, the setting of Jewish philosophy shifted to Christian countries and its language became Hebrew (see above), the philosophic literature produced by Jews during the preceding period was translated from Arabic into Hebrew, as were many scientific and philosophic works written by Muslims (see Steinschneider, Uebersetzungen)
Fez : Université Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah, Publications de la Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, 2006, 112 pp., ISBN 9981829587. Ibn Bâjja (Avempace), Kitâb al-Nafs and Al-qawl fî al-quwwat al-nâtiqat ed. by Jamal Rachak et alii (Centre d’Études Ibn Rushd, Les Cahiers du Groupe de Recherches sur la Philosophie islamique 2) , source: It can in no way depend on a principle apart from itself. considered to be the greatest Moslem after Mohammed. He was appointed to a professorship of the Nizamihah university in Baghdad. he abandoned his position as a university professor , e.g. Specifically, God could command us to hate him and, thus, that would be the morally right thing to do. He writes, Every will can conform to the commands of God. God can, however, command a created will to hate Him. Moreover, any act that can be just on earth could also be just in heaven. On earth the hatred of God can be just, if it is commanded by God himself. Therefore, the hatred of God could also be just in heaven. [Fourth Book of the Sentences, 13] Considering that Medieval philosophy covers a period of 1,000 years�two-fifths of the entire span of the history of philosophy�it may seem a little odd to devote only one chapter to it as we�ve done here , cited: Be sure to explain whether you think Aristotle is right about the nature of justice. Critical Thinking Writing Exercise No. 6 After reading the Politics, write a three page essay in which you explain his arguments as to why he believes a "polity" is the best form of government. In developing this essay you must touch on his views about the strengths and weaknesses of democratic political systems , cited: In the mid-Twentieth Century, Jean-Paul Sartre held that each of us is fully responsible for our own life, that we paint our portrait through our actions and that portrait is all there is. We are "thrown into" life-circumstances, but what we make of them is our own doing; under conditions of uncertainty, we choose, not knowing what the outcomes of our choices will be ref.:
Augustine time and again attacks the sceptic thesis that a high degree of probability is the most that the human mind can attain The notion of the Incarnation and the doctrine of the Trinity are obvious cases in point. But even before those doctrines were fully formulated, there were difficulties, so that an educated Christian in the early centuries would be hard pressed to know how to accommodate his religious views into the only philosophical tradition available. To take just one example, consider pagan philosophical theories of the soul The tendency of the latter to ascribe to “secondary causes” a certain degree of efficacy in the natural order was frowned upon by the theologians on the ground that it militated against the Qur’anic concept of an omnipotent Deity who carried out His grand cosmic designs imperiously and directly and who, in consequence, had no need of any mediator. [87] The occasionalist metaphysics of atoms and accidents, which as we have seen was developed by the theologians of the ninth century, was designed precisely to safeguard God’s absolute independence from any conditions or limitations, natural or other Belhaj, Abdessamad, “Crossroads of Reflection: Avicenna and ‘Abd al-Jabbâr on the Widely Transmitted Propositions,” in More modoque, pp. 285-92 , e.g. While the philosophers in this period wrote for their own learned journals, they also contributed to the leading non-religious journals of opinion such as The Nation and The New Republic , e.g. Even if the Maimonidean synthesis may in principle be regarded as Judaism par excellence, it was a synthesis that was hardly accepted or internalized by the majority of the Jewish community. Wolfson’s highly intellectualist view of Jewish tradition is not quite what most Jews mean and have meant by Jewish tradition. This brings us finally to the sensitive question of the nature of the religious commitment which informs Wolfson’s work—a question that in his lonely last years caused the aging scholar profound personal suffering , cited: When he was a boy he joined the Franciscans. He was not.3 HIS MAIN WORKS Scholars have made considerable progress in determining which of the works attributed to Scotus are genuine. and his disputations at Oxford are recorded in the first set of his Collations. for he took part in a disputation there at some point in 1300 or 1301 , source: True philosophical thinking may have begun also when human beings first realized that they were separate from nature, that they could control it, and that they therefore had freedom and willpower- -the will to choose. Perhaps philosophical thinking began even more simply in humans when they became aware that they could think--something like seventeen-century philosopher Rene Descartes' famous statement, "I think, therefore I am." These trends first distinctively coalesce in Francis Bacon 's call for a new, empirical program for expanding knowledge, and soon found massively influential form in the mechanical physics and rationalist metaphysics of Rene Descartes Through the reading of Telesio’s work, Campanella developed a profound distaste for Aristotelian philosophy and embraced the idea that nature should be explained through its own principles. He rejected the fundamental Aristotelian principle of hylomorphism and adopted instead Telesio’s understanding of reality in terms of the principles of matter, heat, and cold, which he combined with Neoplatonic ideas derived from Ficino

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