By R. McNeill Alexander
How can geckoes stroll at the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic results that allow small bugs to fly? What are the relative benefits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses swap gait as they raise velocity? What determines our personal vertical bounce? fresh technical advances have drastically elevated researchers' skill to reply to those questions with sure bet and in detail.
This textual content presents an up to date evaluate of ways animals run, stroll, leap, move slowly, swim, bounce, hover, and fly. aside from basically the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that strength their activities with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The creation units out the overall principles governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the functionality criteria--such as pace, persistence, and economy--that have formed their choice. It introduces energetics and optimality as simple ideas. The textual content then tackles all of the significant modes during which animals flow on land, in water, and during air. It explains the mechanisms concerned and the actual and organic forces shaping these mechanisms, paying specific realization to power costs.
Focusing on common rules yet widely discussing a wide selection of person instances, it is a fantastic synthesis of present wisdom approximately animal locomotion. it is going to be drastically beneficial to complicated undergraduates, graduate scholars, and a variety of expert biologists, physicists, and engineers.
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